An investigation on anti-impact and penetration performance of basalt fiber composites with different weave and lay-up modes

ballistic tests of basalt fiber, basalt composites in defense technology

This study designed and prepared two kinds of basalt fiber reinforced composites, and presented their anti-impact and penetration performance.

The mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the composites were analyzed and discussed under different loading conditions. The following conclusions can be obtained from this article:

a. The effect of weave and lay-up modes on the anti-impact and penetration performance of basalt fiber composites is related to the shape of the impactor. The low velocity impact resistance to hemispherical impactor of the UBFC is higher than that of the WBFC.

ballistic tests of basalt fiber, basalt composites in defense technology
The schematics of weave and lay-up modes of composites: (a) the WBFC; (b) the UBFC.

The absorbed energy by the UBFC is 5.37% higher than that of the WBFC at 40 J impact energy and 10.93% higher at 60 J impact energy. The low velocity impact resistance to sharp impactor of the UBFC is lower than that of the WBFC. The absorbed energy by the UBFC is 7.69% lower than that of the WBFC at 50 J impact energy.

b. The effect of weave and lay-up modes on the anti-impact and penetration performance of the basalt fiber composites is related to the loading rate of the composites.

The ballistic performance of the UBFC is superior to the WBFC. The residual penetration depth of the UBFC is 25.24 mm, while it’s 26.19 mm for the WBFC, and the protection factor DEF of the UBFC is 0.48, which is higher than 0.42 of the WBFC.

However, the low velocity impact resistance of the UBFC is inferior to the WBFC. The absorbed energy by the UBFC is 7.69% lower than that of the WBFC when the two composites are impacted at 50 J impact energy.

c. The failure mechanism of the two composites under different loading method is obtained. When subjected to three-point bending loading, the UBFC are more prone to delamination, and their bending strength is also lower than that of the WBFC.

Under the condition of low velocity impact with hemispherical impactor, the delamination damage of the UBFC is more serious, while the WBFC have a lower degree of delamination and a lower energy absorption.

Under the low velocity impact with sharp impactor, plenty of fibers of the WBFC are ruptured in the impact region, while the sharp impactor can easily squeeze the fibers away and perforate the non-woven UBFC directly, and the fibers at the impact region do not completely fracture.

Under the high velocity impact by bullet, the fibers of the UBFC cannot be slipped in extremely short time, and the main mode of failure is breakage and delamination damage while the WBFC break mainly through the fibers breakage.

d. From the low velocity impact test and the ballistic test, the back convex height and the back damage area of the WBFC are smaller than the UBFC. The WBFC are more suitable for the personal protection field, and the non-woven UBFC are more suitable for equipment protection field.

Funding
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research is supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 51571033). This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11521062.

Authors:

Hai-dong Fu (1), Xin-ya Feng (1), Jin-xu Liu (1,2), Zhi-ming Yang (1), Chuan He (3), Shu-kui Li (3)

1) School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, China.
2) China National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, China.
3) State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, China.

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